The following draft is my attempts so far to write a paper on the use of BIM within a building operating system, there is so much to read, and follow up on this subject, and so many discussions to have.
The use of BIM within the design process is now becoming established, both at design stage and during the construction phase as multiple designers use the same model base to add functions to the design via engineers, Heating ventilation and electrical and other participating professionals.
This paper will look at how a building’s central control program can use not only the IFC (a platform neutral, open file format specification.) file, but integrate it with a host of external smart, city wide data now being generated in many of the larger cities, to give real time references for control of such things as lighting, heating and cooling.
Big City Data,Data,Sensor,Cloud cover, Sun, solar, PV, Pedestrian, BIM,domestic, commercial, industrial, timer,control, IFC, Construction, Materials, CAD, Vectorworks, Autocad,Archicad,Microstation, DWG, Model, Georeferenced, Location, Geospatial, Planning,
Building of the IFC model
As the build design progresses from a glint in the designer’s eye, and the wishes of a client are drawn into a design, first as a pencil sketch then as a 3D computer model, using components to draw rather than simple lines. Vast amounts of data are being embedded into the model via these components using manufacturer’s technical literature and standard data from Cibse and other government labs, together with rules that govern the placement and use of that material. The technique is called BIM, or building information management.
The impact of using BIM this way, is transforming the design process and building sequence. The client, seeing all the changes, is told that it will be in his or her benefit, streamlining the build process, reducing redundant design processes and controlling costs and waste.
Although the many 3D CAD packages will more than likely retain their individual file formats and methods of working, platform neutral models do exist to allow them to collaborate, IFC being the most dominant.
Buildings automation link to external data
The 3D Model is not limited to the planning and construction phases, once the building is complete and handover to the client is arranged, maintenance of the building can easily be orchestrated using the model and specifications it can generate.
Enlightened clients could take the IFC model and all the rich data it contains, and use it to help run the building more efficiently, from the initial control of people, and their movement within the building from security of access to the semi automation of services. but this is still using the model to generate flat 2D views with little or no automated interaction
Anjomshoaa I (2014) Blending Building Information with Smart City Data, breaks this simple autonomous link and introduces the concept of extending and integrating the IFC open platform format 3D models together with internal building sensor data and city wide sensor data that is now being generated with a central building control program, that might have the ability to interrogate incoming weather, compare it to the model and apply rules to calculate temperature gradients, and possible condensation risk, adapting the heating system as required, doing away with the strict time and general season clockwork approach with a more realistic knowledge based system, based on imminent weather change, using the external data it can find from local and long range sensors located across cities.
The Rise of the Smart City
A vast number of large cities are now becoming, what can only be described as Smart, perhaps this is a little bit exaggerated, but in essence correct, as the old copper wire communication network is replaced with city wide fibre optic and WiFi networks capable of massive data transmission rates augmented with a variety of network aware objects generally called the Internet of Things like sensors, which can collect data on incoming cloud cover, temperature, humidity wind speed, and a host of traffic movement. Internal sensors place on and within a building are also becoming common place running autonomously from simple temperature to more sophisticated control of solar generated power and hot water.
Solar collectors, which are increasingly being incorporated into new building designs and retrofitted onto existing buildings, for power generation for both internal use and for supply to the national grid, increasingly require sophisticated sensors to predict sun path movement, and cloud cover to increase efficiency, could easily incorporate external data from regionally located sensors to help predict cloud cover, correct angle of incidence to the sun, plus incoming danger of high winds buffeting large solar arrays.
The HiTemp project run by Birmingham University 2014, funded the placement of 28 sensors split into three different types to collect data ready for collection, all having having individual URL addresses. a host of different sensors and all powered by small solar PV cells.
These sensors place on existing infrastructure such as lamp posts, together with public and private buildings are recording and freely transmitting a host of information such as GPS position, wind speed,rainfall, temperature, cloud cover, and humidity, which can be used by clients buildings that incorporate BIM data within a Building Management System (BMS) using programs like DeviseNet, creating what Batty M,2012, Smart Cities of the Future, describes as the WoB, ( Web of Buildings )
Mobile phone users can also play a part in the smart city, texting, on twitter, and social networks the comparison of weather data against social media comments will provide useful comparisons (Caragliu, A.,)
From the domestic, through to the larger commercial and industrial level, the current static temperature control systems so often rely upon a simple timer, to control the heating system, secondary local thermostats try to limit heat to individual radiators or zones, and are slow to react if at all, to external temperature change, having no knowledge of the external environment and the way the structure of the building they are heating will react to temperature change, and public use, resulting in overheating damaging condensation reversal and inefficient boiler use.
The Internal Brain
It is the link between the building control program, and the external data that is the next big step in the development of the Smart city,which will provided leaps in efficiency and due in part to correct use of fuel, and its generation, to correct maintenance and material specification.
Questions such building security, access by emergency services such as police and fire brigade for floor plans and lift, window and door control need to be answered, plus autonomous selection of the best available power supply, Solar, heat pump, or national grid. Plus the interoperability between buildings, for they should share equally.
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